espace patient



The ideal shoe closely resembles the bare foot. It just has to protect the foot against shocks (table...), against aggressive floors and against extreme temperature variations.

  • light with a flat outer sole (without heel and 0.5 to 1 cm thick to protect the foot),
  • closed at the bridge (laces, velcro or straps),
  • have a flexible outsole (ideally made of rubber),
  • with a solid heelpiece at the back of the heel (to prevent the foot from slipping sideways on the outsole of the shoe). It must not be rigid under any circumstances, as there is a risk of fixing the heel whereas it has to rotate to ensure perfect foot functioning.
  • have an outsole as wide as your foot (at the heel, midfoot and forefoot) :
    • check if the shoe is not too narrow in relation to your forefoot and midfoot. Don't hesitate to compare (by measurement) the width of your foot with the width of your shoe (at the front of the foot and in the middle of the foot).
    • shoes too wide JB Rodde

    • Avoid shoes that are too wide : they increase leverage and reduce foot mobility.
If you have to wear high-heeled shoes regularly for work, alternate shoes with different heels and return to wearing flat shoes outside of work (and walk barefoot at home).

There are currently brands that offer interchangeable heels. This makes it easier to go to work with a flat heel and change heel height when you arrive at work.

Daniela Bekerman Daniela Bekerman

Tanya Heath Paris Tanya Heath Paris
At home, it is recommended to walk barefoot or with thin slippers closed at the back of the foot. Sandals and slippers which are open at the back of the foot should be banned. They induce grasping of the toes and make the foot unstable. Also avoid sandals with reinforcements that support the arch of the foot. ‘Passive’ arch supports prevent functional movement of the foot and cause a reduction in the effort of the foot muscles. The same applies for outdoor activities in summer. This type of shoe is not suitable for walking.

recommended shoes pain
For people with metatarsalgia (pain in the bones of the forefoot), it is best to wear flat shoes with a minimum sole thickness of 1.5 cm at the forefoot.

Although shoes generally look very comfortable when you buy them, this does not mean that you can make intensive use of them without preparation. It is recommended that you use them gradually to allow time for the new shoe to adapt to your feet and for your joints to get used to the new shoe.

If you have an ankle amplitude limitation and the position of your bare foot flat on the ground hurts, it is advisable to seek the advice of a health professional. You should check whether the cause of this functional discomfort is muscular or articular.


From generation to generation, the same advice persists! Supporting the foot has become logical and necessary for everyone. But is it really the best for our children ?

It is important to know that a child who starts to walk does not have the musculature sufficiently developed to accomplish the ‘tours de force’ of adults. And this is quite normal! The musculature of the child's feet will become more refined and develop until the age of 8. This is why it is useless to support the child's foot and hold his ankles. Supporting and holding means preventing the muscles from developing properly.

To ensure the normal development of the muscles of the ankles and feet, it is advisable to avoid shoes with high legs that fix the ankles, and arch support soles restricting foot movement. These support elements (high legs and artificial arches) hinder the natural development of the supporting muscles of the plantar arches and the stabilising muscles of the ankles. It is largely because of these supports that 80% of the population has flat feet.

The ideal ‘CHILDSHOE’ must meet the criteria of an ‘ADULT’ city shoe. It should have the thinnest possible outsole.


  • A thick and rigid outsole
  • A high shank (ankle support)
  • Support of the internal arch
  • Shoes that are too wide
  • An outsole that is too narrow
Back heelpiece too wide Back heelpiece too wide
Outsole too narrow Outsole too narrow
Puma Lyla Seq Inf
Puma Lyla Seq Inf
At home, preferably walk ‘barefoot’ or wear very thin slip-resistant slippers or slip-resistant socks.
Decathlon Babylight Slippers Decathlon Babylight Slippers
Slip-resistant sock Slip-resistant sock


  • The durometry (hardness) of the outsole is important depending on your weight. Some brands offer a choice of durometry according to the weight of the athlete and the running terrain (forest, road). It is essential to avoid soft outsoles. Even though they provide a feeling of comfort, they make the proprioceptive and muscular coordination of your feet unstable and disorganised.
  • After about 400-500 km, most shoes are too worn out to prevent wear and tear injuries.
  • Preferably buy straight-axis shoes. This shoe generally respects the width of your foot. A curved-axis shoe is a shoe that is mostly made up of an outsole that is narrower than the actual width of your midfoot.
  • So, make sure that the width of the outsole’s middle is equivalent to the width of your foot.
    Straight axis Straight axis
    Curved axis Curved axis
Maximalist shoes Maximalist shoes
(Reebok Zig Tech)
Minimalist shoes Minimalist shoes
(Merrell Vapor Globe)
maximalist shoe
The maximalist shoe often leads to more pronation than running barefoot. For this point, it is preferable to wear universal (so-called neutral) shoes. Avoid anti-pronation or anti-supination shoes. You can recognize them by the differently coloured elements on the shoe (grey on this model).
The criteria for SPORTSHOES are the same as for CITY SHOES. Try to reduce the height of the heels as much as possible. A ‘drop’ (height of the heel in relation to the front of the shoe) of 0 mm is ideal to leave the feet free of all functions.

The less ‘toe spring’ (elevation of the front of the shoe in relation to the rest), the more active the muscles are during walking. Toe spring is a passive aid that can weaken the foot muscles and overload them when switching to shoes that do not have this toe spring.

A ‘toe box’ that respects the width of the forefoot is desirable. It is essential to respect the width of the forefoot to maintain the function of the forefoot muscles. A shoe that is too narrow prevents the forefoot from moving normally during walking and thus promotes weakness of the small muscles.

Toe Spring Toe Spring
Drop Drop
Toe-Box Toe-Box
If you have been wearing maximalist sports shoes for years, i.e. shoes with a drop (heel height), you will need much time to be able to wear minimalist shoes (0 drop = shoe without heel height compared to the front).

Wearing maximalist shoes shortens the calf and promotes long-term weakness and stiffness. This is why it is important to proceed very progressively when reducing the drop. Wearing shoes with a slight drop can therefore be an aid over long distances. It is important to remember, however, that a shoe with a drop should not be worn systematically at all training sessions. It is a passive aid which can be useful in competition but which, in the long term, will make the calf lazy.

Here is an example of an ideal minimalist shoe :
minimalism shoe - inov 8 f-lite 192 Inov-8 F-Lite 192
Le minimalisme extrême (qui se rapproche le plus du pied nu) est-il bon pour vous ?
minimalism shoe extrême
Our feet can be compared to shock absorbers and tyres, but adapted for human beings. The shock absorber is the result of the bone structure of the foot being deformed by the tension on these joints (ligaments, capsules) and by the dynamic action of these muscles (active and passive tension). Thanks to its complex mechanism of rotations associated with the crushing movement and return of the arches, the foot is an unparalleled shock absorber which allows us to adapt perfectly to variable terrain, to adjust our posture when facing obstacles and to absorb shocks on contact with the ground.
human tyre
The human ‘tyre’ is the fatty tissue located under the sole of the foot. This structure is necessary to protect the soft (muscles, ligaments, fasciae) and hard (bones) structures of the foot.
Do we still have these efficient structures in adulthood if we over-protect our feet from an early age ?

If we overprotect our body and if it is no longer subject to stress, it responds quite naturally by diminishing, or even completely eliminating the basic structure.

For this reason, it is not necessary to provide our children with support shoes with extremely thick outsoles. Because of boot-type shoes, the child quickly loses its protective underfoot fat tissue and its musculature is slowed down in its development.

Adults in Western society therefore often have deficient shock absorbers and tyres. A biomechanical assessment at a specialist's can analyse these points to help you make the best choice and get the appropriate treatment if necessary.

In any case, it is advisable to wear minimalist shoes in a gradual manner and to initially favour models that leave a minimum of protection: 1-2 cm of dense foam under the entire sole of the foot.


PRO minimalism from the outset :
  • if the foot has been accustomed from an early age to functioning barefoot.
  • if the biomechanical structure of the foot is good (natural shock absorber function).
  • if the suppleness of the triceps surae (calf) is good.
CONTRA minimalism from the outset (or opt for very progressive wearing with an associated biomechanical assessment) :
  • if the foot has always been protected (especially from a very young age) by shoes with thick soles, by shoes or soles with passive support (passive orthopaedic soles, internal reinforcement in the shoe, anti-pronation or anti-supination shoes).
  • if the biomechanical structure of the foot is poor and irreparable (flat feet, hollow feet, overpronated feet, oversupinated feet, abnormal eversion, abnormal inversion, atrophied underfoot adipose tissue etc.).
  • if the suppleness of the triceps surae (calves) is poor.


  • Drop (heel height): the closest to zero.
  • Thickness of the sole: 1 to 2 cm max.
  • Flexibility of the sole (anywhere, just in front or at the midfoot): full flexibility is ideal.
  • Width of the outsole at the heel (protruding or too narrow): it must respect the width of your foot.
  • Width of the outsole in the midfoot (curved or straight axis): it must respect the width of your foot. The straight axis is preferable, especially if you have X-shaped knees and flat feet.
  • Width of the outsole at the forefoot (wide or narrow): it should respect the width of your foot.
  • Arch support: avoid any type of support.
  • Heelpiece (rigid or soft): solid but not rigid. It must in no case block the heel. The Heelpiece is of no importance below 1cm. Above 1cm, preferably it is solid in order to prevent the foot from slipping sideways on the outsole.
  • Toe spring: to be avoided as it responds as a passive aid. It is useful for sportsmen who wish to have a passive aid during competition.
  • Weight (light or heavy): the lightest possible weight is ideal.


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